Bachelor Program in New Brunswick Canada

Top Bachelor Programs in New Brunswick Canada 2017/2018

Master

A bachelor’s degree is a post-secondary degree awarded after completed 120 credits. It usually takes eight semesters to complete a Bachelor’s degree. While completing an undergraduate course, candidates have to study general courses and chose a major specific subject. A Bachelor’s degree can also be called a baccalaureate in certain countries.

Canada is the best country to pursue your higher education if you are an interactive person. Almost every ethnic group is represented in Canada thus it's a multicultural society. Language barrier is not an issue to foreign students as Canada is considered the world's leader in language training.

The city provides a number of opportunities to major in any course of your preference. With a number of famous schools like University of New Brunswick, this city is in the forefront in improving the higher education levels in Canada.

Find Bachelor Degrees in New Brunswick in Canada 2017/2018

Read More

Bachelor of Theology

Kingswood University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Sussex

This degree is uniquely designed to give a head start to those who are called to a teaching career in Bible colleges, seminaries, and universities. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Program Overview Have you been sensing God’s call to ministry? Do you love studying God’s Word? Do you enjoy sharing your thoughts and insights with others? Do you have a passion to show others why it makes sense to believe what Christians are willing to die for? Do you have a passion to give others the tools which will enable them to think clearly about the Christian faith? Does the thought of spending your life teaching God’s Word feel like a good fit for you? If these statements describe you, perhaps God is calling you to a ministry in Christian higher education. If so, the Bachelor of Theology Degree at Kingswood University may be just what you are looking for. This degree is uniquely designed to give a head start to those who are called to a teaching career in Bible colleges, seminaries, and universities. Objectives will give you a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible. will introduce you to the richly rewarding world of biblical languages. will introduce you to the challenging world of apologetics. What do you believe? Why do you believe it? How can you believe it? will help you develop and articulate a Christian worldview. will give you a firm grasp of the content and historical development of what Christians believe. will help you become skilful in using the tools and resources available for ongoing study and research. will provide you with a well-rounded foundation in general studies and a basic... [-]

Bachelor of Applied Arts in Criminal Justice

St. Thomas University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Fredericton

Criminology is a discipline that seeks to understand how people behave in difficult, confusing, stressful, tragic, and bizarre situations. As the study of Criminology often involves political, social, and personal consideration, students learn to analyze theories of criminal behaviour and fairly and accurately evaluate criminal justice systems and policies. [+]

Criminology is a discipline that seeks to understand how people behave in difficult, confusing, stressful, tragic, and bizarre situations. As the study of Criminology often involves political, social, and personal consideration, students learn to analyze theories of criminal behaviour and fairly and accurately evaluate criminal justice systems and policies. Our program at St. Thomas examines the people and institutions that affect, and are affected by, the justice system, exploring the impact on offenders, victims, and the public. CRITICAL & TRANSFERABLE SKILLS By studying Criminology, students develop exceptional academic and research literacy. As presentation of this research is essential to the discipline, students also gain significant experience in skills such as communication and debate. Analytical and evaluative skills are central to the study of Criminology and Criminal Justice as students are required to question the policies and institutions in place for those who have been identified as criminal and those who have been victims of criminal behaviour. COMMON CAREERS AND GRADUATE PATHWAYS A foundation in Criminology and Criminal Justice will prepare you for a wide variety of careers. The knowledge and skillset gained from this subject area is both deeply analytical, practical, and demanding. Graduates from this program have pursued careers in law, police and RCMP, government, social policy, corrections, social work, education, and more St. Thomas is the first university in Atlantic Canada to offer a major in Criminology and the first Canadian university to develop an applied arts degree program in Criminal Justice. A major or honours in Criminology... [-]

Bachelor of International Development

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

Humber’s Bachelor of International Development is an interdisciplinary degree that provides you with a solid theoretical foundation in international development studies and its related disciplines, as well as professional and technical skills in development management. The program is designed specifically to bridge the gap between theory and practice by building hands-on project management skills and capabilities. The program fosters a... [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Getting Down to the Grass Roots Humber’s Bachelor of International Development is an interdisciplinary degree that provides you with a solid theoretical foundation in international development studies and its related disciplines, as well as professional and technical skills in development management. The program is designed specifically to bridge the gap between theory and practice by building hands-on project management skills and capabilities. The program fosters a comparative understanding of developed and developing countries through directed study, analytical research and opportunities to travel, gaining cross-cultural learning experiences. Your core courses, in which you’ll develop professional competencies, include four streams: international development studies, supplementary disciplines, management skills and research skills. List of Courses Semester 1 ANTH 1000 Principles of Anthropology ECON 1000 Microeconomics PHIL 2003 Ethics and Moral Theory POLS 1000 Introduction to Politics Select 1 from the following courses DEGE Degree Breadth Elective Semester 2 ECON 1500 Macroeconomics IDS 1500 Introduction to Development SOCI 1000 Principles of Sociology STAT 1112 Statistics for Business Select 1 from the following courses DEGE Degree Breadth Elective Semester 3 IDS 2000 World Geography IDS 2010 Development Theories and Approaches RSMT 2500 Qualitative Research Methods SCIE 2005 Introduction to Environmental Studies Select 1 from the following courses DEGE Degree Breadth Elective Semester 4 IDS 2500 Integrated Development: Sectoral Studies IDS 2510 Humanitarian Assistance and Development IDS 2600 Gender and Development MGMT 1500 Organizational Behaviour Select 1 from the following courses DEGE Degree Breadth Elective Semester 5 IDS 3001 Contemporary Issues... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Supply Chain Management

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

Use the power of a degree in Supply Chain Management to move your career from point a to point z. Supply chain refers to the entire network of companies that work together to design, produce, deliver and service products. It involves the coordination of a wide range of business processes – such as marketing, forecasting, demand management, production planning, packaging, warehousing, transportation, purchasing, inventory, distribution, and customer relationship management – to achieve organizational goals and deliver customer satisfaction. Position yourself in a vital role in business operations. [+]

Use the power of a degree in Supply Chain Management to move your career from point a to point z. Supply chain refers to the entire network of companies that work together to design, produce, deliver and service products. It involves the coordination of a wide range of business processes – such as marketing, forecasting, demand management, production planning, packaging, warehousing, transportation, purchasing, inventory, distribution, and customer relationship management – to achieve organizational goals and deliver customer satisfaction. Position yourself in a vital role in business operations. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students learn the fundamentals of business, including accounting, business law, information systems, e-commerce, financial management, HR management and marketing. At the end of year two, students make their decision and spend their final two years specializing in their chosen business field. See all degrees on the common platform > Curriculum Highlights (Specialization Years 3 and 4) In years three and four students decide on their specialty and focus on the application of theories, methods and techniques in various aspects of problem solving and developing supply chain management strategies. Product Design, Development and Delivery Facility Planning and Warehousing Purchasing Forecasting and Inventory Management Manufacturing/Operations Planning and Control Managing Sustainability in the Supply Chain CRM and Data Mining Transportation and Network... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Marketing

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

There is no better place to focus on an education in marketing than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Marketing at Its Very Best There is no better place to focus on an education in marketing than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. Our Program Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Marketing degree program gives you a comprehensive grounding in both general business knowledge and specialized marketing skills. In your first two years, you’ll take introductory courses such as accounting, economics and law, which will teach you the fundamentals of business. Marketing courses, taken in your third and fourth year, give you the specialized knowledge that will help you stand out from the crowd. You’ll learn from professors recognized for their expertise and extensive industry contacts. The program curriculum, based on current trends, technologies and methodologies, brings real-world challenges into the classroom. By graduation, you’ll have developed a wide range of marketable skills, including: creating a strategic marketing plan conducting a product analysis using social media and advertising for product promotion using databases to create consumer relationships. Humber’s project-based curriculum means you will take projects from idea to execution while working in a real-world, team-based environment. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students learn the fundamentals of... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - International Business

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

There is no better place to focus on an education in international business than at The Business School at Humber. You will develop the skills and knowledge you need to carve out a career not only in a multinational company but also in fast-paced small- and medium-businesses, and entrepreneurial ventures. Our program combines a balanced approach to teaching business, featuring case studies, problem solving, modelling, and incorporating a strong focus on marketing, finance and operations. [+]

International Business At Its Very Best There is no better place to focus on an education in international business than at The Business School at Humber. You will develop the skills and knowledge you need to carve out a career not only in a multinational company but also in fast-paced small- and medium-businesses, and entrepreneurial ventures. Our program combines a balanced approach to teaching business, featuring case studies, problem solving, modelling, and incorporating a strong focus on marketing, finance and operations. Our Program Humber’s International Business degree program will help you develop the skills and knowledge you need to carve out a career not only in a multinational company but also in nimble, fast-paced small and medium businesses, and entrepreneurial ventures. Our program combines a balanced approach to teaching business, featuring case studies, problem solving, modelling, and incorporating a strong focus on marketing, finance and operations. In years one and two you will be introduced to fundamental business concepts including marketing, e-commerce, finance, accounting, economics, law, business systems, human resources management and organizational behaviour. In years three and four, you will take specialized courses in international business. This will give you the opportunity to gain practical skills through applied projects such as creating a strategic plan to launch a business into an international market. You will gain experience developing processes from concept through to execution. In addition, the program features a number of breadth courses that will allow you to expand your knowledge and interests in areas beyond business. You... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Management Studies

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

This degree program prepares students for a variety of managerial roles in a wide range of Canadian businesses including small and medium enterprises (SMEs). They will have the potential to be promoted to mid-level management positions within 5 to 10 years. Students could also pursue graduate management studies or may continue their postgraduate education within an industry designation program of their choosing. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Management Studies At Its Very Best This degree program prepares students for a variety of managerial roles in a wide range of Canadian businesses including small and medium enterprises (SMEs). They will have the potential to be promoted to mid-level management positions within 5 to 10 years. Students could also pursue graduate management studies or may continue their postgraduate education within an industry designation program of their choosing. Our Program Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Management Studies degree program is a four-year program that prepares you to take on a variety of managerial roles in many different types of business. The program is based on the seven traditional management functions (planning, organizing, staffing, directing, co-ordinating, reporting and budgeting) and gives you the necessary skills and knowledge to: develop business strategies analyze issues from various perspectives apply classroom work to industry-connected projects integrate transferable skills such as interpersonal interaction, communication and organization to all classroom and project work. In the first two years of the program, you’ll study introductory courses in business fundamentals such as marketing, accounting, economics and law. In years three and four, you’ll take advanced courses covering all seven management functions, along with business research methods and strategic management. You’ll also get hands-on learning that provides both the education and the experience employers look for once you graduate. You’ll be taught by professors who are widely known for their real-world connections and background. Our industry-designed, project-based curriculum gives you the opportunity to... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Human Resources Management

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

There is no better place to focus on an education in Human Resources Management than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. [+]

Human Resources Management At Its Very Best There is no better place to focus on an education in Human Resources Management than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. Our Program Humber’s Human Resources Management degree program focuses on applied professional human resources (HR) practices and solutions. Your first two years will concentrate on fundamental business concepts such as marketing, accounting, economics and law. In years three and four, you will specialize in HR, gaining practical skills through applied projects such as developing a business plan for the startup of a new HR department. You will have the opportunity to develop processes from the idea stage through to execution and you will learn from experienced professors and a network of industry professionals. Humber’s Human Resources Management degree program is closely connected with the HR industry. You will have the opportunity to meet with a panel of the program’s advisory committee members to discuss career opportunities and to attend a series of workshops on human resources-related topics. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students learn the fundamentals of business, including accounting, business law, information systems, e-commerce, financial management, HR management and marketing. At the end... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Hospitality and Tourism Management

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

There is no better place to focus on an education in hospitality and tourism than at The Business School at Humber. This degree has been designed to meet the demands of employers preparing students with the strategic, technological and managerial skills now necessary in this fast-paced industry. It combines the theory and knowledge of business administration and tourism studies with experiential learning in tourism industry sectors. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Hospitality And Tourism Management At Its Very Best There is no better place to focus on an education in hospitality and tourism than at The Business School at Humber. This degree has been designed to meet the demands of employers preparing students with the strategic, technological and managerial skills now necessary in this fast-paced industry. It combines the theory and knowledge of business administration and tourism studies with experiential learning in tourism industry sectors. Our Program Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Hospitality and Tourism Management degree program has been designed to meet the demands of employers for the strategic, technological and managerial skills considered necessary in this exciting and dynamic industry. The program incorporates a “best of both worlds” approach: the theory and knowledge you gain from a traditional degree program in business administration and tourism studies, along with experiential learning in tourism industry sectors. Throughout the program, you will engage in analyzing a series of business and management scenarios for which you will prepare recommendations and solutions. The program also provides an international perspective through case studies that reflect the global nature of the tourism industry. In years one and two, you will be introduced to fundamental business concepts, including marketing, finance, accounting, economics and law. In years three and four, you will focus on advanced hospitality and tourism industry management, and the application of technology in tourism strategy, marketing and distribution systems. You will use software applications and apply advanced financial management... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Finance

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Finance program is a four-year business degree that offers comprehensive knowledge of both business and finance. In your first two years, you’ll be exposed to a variety of business fundamentals such as marketing, accounting, economics and law. In the last two years of the program, you’ll focus on theories, methods and techniques in various aspects of finance, including analysis, planning and risk management. [+]

Finance At Its Very Best Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Finance program is a four-year business degree that offers comprehensive knowledge of both business and finance. In your first two years, you’ll be exposed to a variety of business fundamentals such as marketing, accounting, economics and law. In the last two years of the program, you’ll focus on theories, methods and techniques in various aspects of finance, including analysis, planning and risk management. Our Program Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Finance program is a four-year business degree that offers comprehensive knowledge of both business and finance. In your first two years, you’ll be exposed to a variety of business fundamentals such as marketing, accounting, economics and law. In the last two years of the program, you’ll focus on theories, methods and techniques in various aspects of finance, including analysis, planning and risk management. Our project-based curriculum, designed by industry experts, helps you develop the skills to move from idea to execution, all while learning core business concepts and financial strategies. A senior-level project in your final year will give you experience in problem solving, evaluating strengths and limitations, and making appropriate decisions in a real-world, team-based environment. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two-year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students learn the fundamentals of business, including accounting, business law,... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce - Fashion Management

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

This degree has been designed for students interested in the business side of fashion. It features a distinctive array of fashion management courses and a program focus in areas such as wholesale management, retail operations, or import/export management. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Fashion Management At Its Very Best This degree has been designed for students interested in the business side of fashion. It features a distinctive array of fashion management courses and a program focus in areas such as wholesale management, retail operations, or import/export management. Our Program Humber’s four-year Bachelor of Commerce – Fashion Management program is designed for students interested in the business side of fashion and offers management courses tailored specifically to the fashion industry. The first two years of the Fashion Management program concentrate on developing general business management skills in marketing, accounting, economics and law. In years three and four, you will take specialized courses in fashion management. The curriculum includes courses in twentieth-century fashion history, trend forecasting, retail and wholesale management, brand management, store planning and merchandising, global sourcing, and retail finance. You’ll gain practical skills through applied projects during which you’ll develop processes and products from the idea stage through to execution. You will also develop business plans and apply your classroom learning to fashion industry analysis, financial management and e-commerce assignments that simulate the latest challenges in the fashion industry. Several third- and fourth-year Fashion Management classes are delivered in Humber’s Fashion Institute. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce Digital Business Management - formerly e-Business Marketing

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Digital Business Management program provides the essential components of a traditional business degree, plus a broad selection of cutting-edge technology and advanced marketing techniques. It will help prepare you to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. [+]

Digital Business Management At Its Very Best Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Digital Business Management program provides the essential components of a traditional business degree, plus a broad selection of cutting-edge technology and advanced marketing techniques. It will help prepare you to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. By graduation, your e-commerce skills will include: developing e-business marketing/sales plans (product analysis, pricing strategies, distribution channels, promotional programs) employing project management and change management tools analyzing financial issues and how they affect pricing, cost and profit integrating effective and efficient supply chain management operations/tactics/strategies streamlining business processes, using information and communication technology (ICT). Courses include accounting, micro/macroeconomics, business law, marketing, information systems, ethics, e-commerce, web development, database systems, supply chain management and more. You’ll be able to put classroom learning into practice and get real-world experience by attending industry events, participating in competitions and learning first-hand from guest speakers. Our program is built on our two-year common platform of solid business education, comprised of marketing, accounting, operations, economics and law. In years three and four, you will work toward your digital business management specialization. Among the unique program opportunities, you’ll have the chance to gain practical skills using a broad range of business software such as Microsoft Excel, Word, Access, PowerPoint, MS Project, SAP and other web development languages and software. As Internet sales from both business-to-business and business-to-consumer reach into the trillions of dollars worldwide annually, Humber’s combination of a general business degree and broad computer and communication technology... [-]

Bachelor of Commerce in Accounting

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Canada Toronto Fredericton + 1 more

There is no better place to focus on an education in accounting than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. Benefit from program specific resources like "The Accounting Centre" and challenging case studies. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Accounting At Its Very Best There is no better place to focus on an education in accounting than at The Business School at Humber. Our experienced faculty combined with an industry-focused curriculum and renowned industry partners put our program among the very best. Benefit from program specific resources like "The Accounting Centre" and challenging case studies. Our Program Humber’s Bachelor of Commerce – Accounting degree program will help you develop skills in the applied aspects of the profession. Introductory courses provide a fundamental understanding of a variety of business disciplines along with their functions and relationships. Upper-year courses provide a more in-depth study of accounting. Elective courses available in the arts and humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences will enrich and extend your academic experience. The program emphasizes critical thinking, analytical skills, communications and leadership. Areas of study include marketing, law, economics, operations management, ethics, human resources management, organizational behaviour, financial accounting, management accounting, financial management, taxation, audit, strategic management, and statistics and quantitative analysis. You will have the opportunity to train in Humber’s state-of-the-art Accounting Centre, where you’ll learn about best practices in accounting and use standard industry software such as Simply Accounting. What You Will Learn Common Platform Years 1 and 2 This program is one of eleven Bachelor of Commerce degrees built on a common two-year platform of business studies that gives students the time to decide their specialty. In years one and two, students learn the fundamentals of business, including... [-]

Bachelor of Education

Crandall University
Campus Full time September 2017 Canada Moncton

The Bachelor of Education program at Crandall University is one of the most respected teacher preparation programs in Eastern Canada. A Crandall Education degree prepares you to teach in virtually any classroom, anywhere. [+]

Education At Crandall The Bachelor of Education program at Crandall University is one of the most respected teacher preparation programs in Eastern Canada. A Crandall Education degree prepares you to teach in virtually any classroom, anywhere. The goal of our Bachelor of Education program is to graduate teachers who will become student-centered educational leaders with a commitment to the important mission of educating generationsto come. Upon successful completion of the Bachelor of Education degree, you will be well prepared to take on teaching challenges in a broad range of classroom settings. You will also be eligible to apply for a New Brunswick Level 5 Teaching Certificate, which equips you to teach in the elementary or secondary school classroom. You may choose from two Program Options: Elementary Secondary You may pursue your Bachelor of Education in one of two ways: Consecutive – You will complete four semesters of teacher education after you have completed your undergraduate degree (B.A., B.B.A. or B.Sc.) or equivalent. Concurrent – Taken at the same time as your undergraduate degree (B.A., B.B.A. or B.Sc.), this approach requires a minimum of 5 years to complete both degrees. If you wish to pursue the concurrent program, you should apply during the second semester of your first year at Crandall. Special Program Highlights for a Bachelor of Education Our Bachelor of Education graduates hold a strong reputation around the world. Often they are specifically requested for internship placement in places such as China and Australia. Education professors stay abreast of... [-]

Bachelor of Technical Education

Crandall University
Campus Full time September 2017 Canada Moncton

Our Bachelor of Technical Education graduates hold a strong reputation around the world. Often they are specifically requested for internship placement in places such as China and Australia. [+]

Bachelors 2017/2018 in New Brunswick Canada. Technical Education At Crandall The Bachelor of Technical Education Degree (B.T.Ed.) is an innovative program designed to combine your previous technical skills and training with 21st century teacher training. If you have a background in areas like Business Technology, ICT, Culinary Arts, Interior Design, Trades, or Hospitality and want to work in a school setting, then this is the program for you. Upon successful completion of the Bachelor of Technical Education degree, you will be eligible to apply for a Level 4 Teaching Certificate from the New Brunswick Department of Education. Special Program Highlights for a Bachelor of Technical Education Our Bachelor of Technical Education graduates hold a strong reputation around the world. Often they are specifically requested for internship placement in places such as China and Australia. Technical Education professors stay abreast of current literature and methodology discussed in professional journals so our students learn the very latest techniques and approaches. Students learn to use the latest classroom technology including such resources as Smart boards, student response systems, digital document cameras and infrared classroom sound amplification. The program includes 18 weeks in the classroom – 2 weeks of observation and 16 consecutive weeks of actual teaching experience. Students complete their first semester course work before they are in a classroom so they can get maximum benefit from their observations. [-]