Bachelor Programs in Biology

Compare 76 Bachelor Programs in Biology

Biology

Biology is the scientific study of growth, function, origin, and evolution of organisms and life and covers a great number of fields including ecology, ecosystems, genetics, anatomy, physiology, cells, botany, animals and plants. Many Bachelor in Biology programs are aimed at being pre-professional, such as pre-medicine, pre-dentistry, pre-ecology, or other scientific disciplines.

Through laboratory and coursework, students earning a Bachelor in Biology learn the skills necessary to become biologists or scientists. Some coursework for Bachelor in Biology programs may focus on human biology including physiology, genetics, and anatomy, while others may focus on ecology, such as conservation, environmental management, and biotechnology. With a Bachelor in Biology, graduates have the option of such jobs as laboratory and research work in the public or private sector, health departments, government, working alongside scientists, teaching, or continuing on to post graduate education.

If you are scientifically oriented and are considering a Bachelor in Biology, then take a look through the options below and take the next step towards your personal and professional goals!

Read More

Bachelor in Biology (Environmental)

University of North Alabama
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Florence

This program should prepare the student for positions in natural resource utilization, environmental research, and environmental education; or for graduate work in environmental biology. No minor field is required in this major; however, a minor field may be added by taking more than the minimum hours required for the degree. Students should obtain departmental advisement early in the program. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. The environmental biology option is designed for students who wish to prepare for positions requiring a general background in biology, with ancillary work in computer science, chemistry, physics and earth science, and mathematics; a student must also choose a block of courses from either geography or industrial hygiene. This program should prepare the student for positions in natural resource utilization, environmental research, and environmental education; or for graduate work in environmental biology. No minor field is required in this major; however, a minor field may be added by taking more than the minimum hours required for the degree. Students should obtain departmental advisement early in the program. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS: Hours A. General Education Component 41-47 B. Major Requirements Principles of Biology (111) 4 Principles of Biology (112) 4 Biological Literature (200W) 1 Cell Biology (305) 4 Genetics (306) 4 Microbiology (307) 4 Senior Assessment Seminar (498) 1 Organismal Biology (Protistans, Fungi, Plants): Plant Taxonomy (463) 3 Organismal Biology (Protistans, Animals): Animal Physiology (311) 4 Natural History of the Vertebrates (341) 4 Population Biology: Ecology 4 Aquatic Ecology (423) 4 TOTAL 41 Prescribed Supporting Courses: General Chemistry (CH 111, 111L, 112, 112L) 8 Quantitative Analysis (CH 321, 321LW) or Instrumental Analysis (CH 322, 322LW) 5 Organic Chemistry (CH 311, 311L) 5 Environmental Regulations (CH 465) 3 Business Applications of Microcomputer Software (CIS 125) or higher level computer science or computer information systems course 3 Earth Science/Physical Geology (ES 131) 4 Hydrogeology (ES 488) 3 Pre-calculus Algebra (MA 112)... [-]

Bachelor of Marine Biology - taught in Spanish

University of Veracruz - Universidad Veracruzana
Campus July 2017 Mexico Veracruz

Note: This Bachelor of Marine Biology program is taught in Spanish only. El Programa de Biología Marina es reconocido por su calidad a través de la acreditación de calidad nacional efectuada por un organismo acreditador, reconocido por el Consejo para la Evaluación de la Educación Superior, COPAES, A. C. El Plan de Estudios y su Estructura Curricular, está comprendida con 350 créditos que, de acuerdo a los lineamientos de Control Escolar de los Programas Educativos MEIF, se cursan en un tiempo estándar de 7 Periodos (3.5 años) con un periodo corto de 5 (2.5 años) y un periodo largo de 11 (5.5 años). [+]

Note: This Bachelor of Marine Biology program is taught in Spanish only. El Programa de Biología Marina es reconocido por su calidad a través de la acreditación de calidad nacional efectuada por un organismo acreditador, reconocido por el Consejo para la Evaluación de la Educación Superior, COPAES, A. C. El Plan de Estudios y su Estructura Curricular, está comprendida con 350 créditos que, de acuerdo a los lineamientos de Control Escolar de los Programas Educativos MEIF, se cursan en un tiempo estándar de 7 Periodos (3.5 años) con un periodo corto de 5 (2.5 años) y un periodo largo de 11 (5.5 años). Estándar Total de Créditos/50= Tiempo Estándar 350/50= 7 periodos Continuo Corto Tiempo Estándar se multiplica por 0.75 7 x 0.75= 5.25 periodos Continuo largo Tiempo Estándar se multiplica por 1.50 7 x 1.5= 10.5 periodos Los planes de estudio de Biología Marina coinciden en formar profesionales que atiendan los problemas sociales de cada región, sustentados en una formación integral que incluye asignaturas teórico-prácticas, básicas, disciplinarias y profesionalizantes. Las experiencias educativas que conforman los planes de estudio que se ofrecen, corresponden al área biológica (invertebrados, botánica, microbiología, etc.), química (química general, bioquímica, etc.), matemática (estadística, estadística multivariada, etc.), ecológica (ecología marina), física y general (administración, diseño y evaluación de proyectos, etc.). De manera general, se notan coincidencias en cuanto a las asignaturas básicas relacionadas con la diversidad biológica marina y con las matemáticas y química así como en las experiencias educativas integradoras (e.g. evolución). Propone el desarrollo social... [-]

Bachelor's in Biology/Biochemistry

Eastern Mennonite University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Harrisonburg

If you’re interested in biology, you’re interested in life. Humans, animals, forests, streams and soil … these are subjects of concern and fascination. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. Studies in Biology at EMU If you’re interested in biology, you’re interested in life. Humans, animals, forests, streams and soil … these are subjects of concern and fascination. At EMU you’ll work side by side with others who share your interest as you conduct experiments, analyze data, study diagrams, debate issues and take field trips. Biology students have the privilege of working with faculty on research projects in biology. Recent examples of student research include projects on the genetics of aging, the impact of a high salt diet on hypertension, the organic production of blueberries, and methods of tracking coconut rhinoceros beetles to their breeding sites. The primary objective of the biology department is to provide courses and skill training required by students earning B.A. or B.S. degrees, especially those majoring in biology. Additionally it emphasizes preparing students for graduate training in medicine, den- tistry, veterinary sciences, clinical laboratory science, and allied health fields; teaching biology in secondary schools; sustainable agriculture; environmental science; and gradu- ate work in other fields of biology. Majors: Biology Biochemistry Clinical Laboratory Science Environmental Sustainability with concentrations in: Environmental Science Environmental and Social Sustainability Minors: Environmental Sustainability Biology Careers in Biology include medical technologist, physician, dentist, physical therapist, environmental consultant, genetic counselor, veterinarian, biotechnologist, epidemiologist, pathologist, wildlife biologist, international agriculture consultant, immunologist, and middle or high school teacher. Pre-Professional Health Sciences Program (PPHS) Biology majors interested in biomedicine enroll in PPHS, which is designed for students anticipating entrance into a professional health... [-]

BA In Biology

Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR
Campus Full time Part time 18 months September 2017 Canada Rimouski Lévis + 2 more

The biology degree program offers a broad training in the different fields of biology: ecology, botany, zoology, microbiology, physiology and biochemistry. [+]

OBJECTIVES The biology degree program offers a broad training in the different fields of biology: ecology, botany, zoology, microbiology, physiology and biochemistry. Unique in shape, including the importance given to laboratory and field trips, and its content, it can acquire a GED (general pathway) or a more specialized in one of five concentrations training - Biogeochemistry environmental - Ecology - Wildlife and habitat - environmental Physiology and biochemistry - marine Science Unique in shape, including the importance given to laboratories, and its content, it can acquire specialized training, with honors diploma in the a concentration or one of the following paths: wildlife and habitats; Wildlife as we know them today are the results of many environmental pressures, whether natural or anthropogenic. The BA in biology, wildlife habitats and concentration, to better understand the links between the various wildlife species and their habitats are learning how to shape and develop wildlife habitat to guide the demographic trajectory of a species. It is located at the interface of ecology and management of natural resources, docking in advanced analytical approaches and of landscape ecology concepts, population dynamics and conservation. Students learn to identify, analyze, monitor and model wildlife populations to ensure the sustainability and in some cases their exploitation. ecology; Ecology focuses on the interactions between living things and their environment by analyzing the components, operation and evolution of ecosystems. The BS in biology, ecology concentration, to better understand the adaptations, distribution and abundance of living organisms. In addition, this training offers the... [-]

Bachelor in Biology

William Peace University
Campus Full time Part time September 2017 USA Raleigh

The Biology program track is a flexible degree that allows students to pursue their science studies along with electives to prepare them for careers in nursing, health administration, medical technology, pharmaceutical sales, crime investigation, museum education and more. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. WPU professors don't have to look for proof of what the Biology Department does for its students. It comes to them. Every semester the phone calls, emails and letters come from graduates, thanking the professors for preparing them for their post-graduate work and meaningful careers with top companies. It's no mistake WPU biology students hit the ground running when they graduate. We offer small class sizes with experienced faculty members who take a stake in your future. Through exciting lab opportunities, students step out of the classroom and truly experience the field. WPU also provides teaching assistantships to exceptional students where they can work alongside professors and get valuable teaching and research experience. Students have the option of majors in Biology. The Bachelor of Science track is a focused degree emphasizing math, chemistry and physics and is an avenue for careers in dental, medical, and veterinary fields, as well as graduate studies in these and other areas. The Bachelor of Arts track is a flexible degree that allows students to pursue their science studies along with electives to prepare them for careers in nursing, health administration, medical technology, pharmaceutical sales, crime investigation, museum education and more. This program was designed with desirable outcomes in mind. Graduates from the WPU biology program are consistently accepted to prestigious graduate programs and have found positions at companies like GlaxoSmithKline, Osiris, Biogen, Norach, the U.S. Army and more. Courses The courses listed below are for the Academic Catalog and are subject... [-]

BS Biology (Pre-Med) Major

Toccoa Falls College
Campus Full time 126 hours September 2017 USA Toccoa Falls

The Biology/Chemistry Department at Toccoa Falls College is located in the Clary Science Building and offers essential training in the natural sciences for the liberal arts curriculum taught from a Biblical perspective. [+]

The Biology/Chemistry Department at Toccoa Falls College is located in the Clary Science Building and offers essential training in the natural sciences for the liberal arts curriculum taught from a Biblical perspective, with special emphasis on these areas of study: Biology Major: Every major area of biological study is included in the major courses, along with general and organic chemistry, physics, and biochemistry. Pre-medical: TFC has a strong record of placement of graduates in medical schools, including acceptance of TFC students at Georgia Health Sciences University (MCG), University of Tennessee, and Mercer University. All of the courses required or recommended by medical schools are offered on campus. Pre-nursing: TFC has had many students enter nursing programs, both at the bachelor’s and master’s levels. We have articulation agreements with Brenau and Piedmont University Schools of Nursing and offer all of the courses required to satisfy the requirements for entry into any nursing school in the region. Education Careers: The Science Department works closely with the Teacher Education Department to provide courses that meet the strict requirements of Georgia state certification, both in basic and secondary science education areas. Sustainability Minor: With a developing emphasis on proper use of resources and a desire to better motivate and equip students in a mission setting to think through allocation priorities, TFC has added a sustainability minor that covers ecology, public health in a global setting, and practical exercises. What do I get to do as a Biology major at TFC? – Study and dissect... [-]

Bachelor in Life Sciences

HAN University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Netherlands Nijmegen Arnhem + 1 more

The Bachelor in Life Sciences program at HAN University of Applied Sciences is a hands-on four-year Bachelor course that is taught in English. During your studies, you gain theoretical knowledge, but you also spend more than half of your time doing practical work. So when you graduate, you are well prepared for the job market. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. Bachelor in Life Sciences The medical and pharmaceutical industry is constantly looking for new ways to prevent and cure diseases. Plant development companies try to develop new ways to optimise the growth and production of crops. Environmental companies look for innovative solutions to environmental problems. Dedicated professionals working in laboratories all over the world are at the heart of this research. Become one of them by studying Life Sciences at HAN! Course Start September 2017 Course overview Life Sciences at HAN University of Applied Sciences is a hands-on four-year Bachelors course that is taught in English. During your studies, you gain theoretical knowledge, but you also spend more than half of your time doing practical work. So when you graduate, you are well prepared for the job market. Life Sciences is the international and English-language equivalent of the Biology stream within the Dutch Bachelors course Biologie en Medisch Laboratoriumonderzoek (Biology and Medical Laboratory Research). Except for the language of instruction, the two courses are identical in terms of both content and level. Orientation The 1st year offers an orientation to the life sciences: you learn about fundamental theories and lab techniques. You apply your new knowledge in small group projects dealing with problems from the field of life sciences. These projects help you to develop your problem-solving and communication skills. They also give you insight into current issues that are relevant to professional practice. Increasing independence Over the next three years, as you broaden your knowledge and... [-]

Bachelor in Molecular Biology and Genetics

Bilkent University
Campus Full time September 2017 Turkey Ankara

The Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics prepares students to become researchers in this area of biology. The Department houses state-of-the-art laboratories that allow study of [+]

The Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics prepares students to become researchers in this area of biology. The Department houses state-of-the-art laboratories that allow study of high-throughput genomics, bioinformatics, recombinant DNA, model organisms, and cell cultures for educational and research purposes. The main focus of research activities is on the molecular genetics and biology of human diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and rare inherited neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Students have the opportunity to study with internationally recognized faculty members working at the forefront of research in genetics and cell science.

 

 

Why study at Bilkent University... [-]


Bachelor's in Bioinformatics

Sapienza University of Rome
Campus Full time 3 years October 2017 Italy Rome

The Bachelors Programme in Bioinformatics provides undergraduates with advanced knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of biological systems, the structure and function of biological macromolecules and the cellular processes in which they are involved, analytical and biotechnological tools and mathematical methods, physics and chemistry for biotechnological applications; [+]

Bachelors in Biology. The Bachelors Programme in Bioinformatics provides undergraduates with advanced knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of biological systems, the structure and function of biological macromolecules and the cellular processes in which they are involved, analytical and biotechnological tools and mathematical methods, physics and chemistry for biotechnological applications; good computational and bioinformatics expertise, also for the organization, construction and access to databases, in particular for the analysis of genomes, proteomes and metabolomi; knowledge of the basic techniques in the various fields of biotechnology for the industry and the environment. Graduates in Bioinformatics must: Master specific technological platforms in the field of genetics and proteomics, design and develop new biologically active molecules, even with the use of nanostructured materials, techniques of fermentation and bioconversion for the production of metabolites, proteins of interest, and renewable energy sources, techniques purification and analysis of biomolecules; development of monitoring and environmental remediation processes; Understand the basic aspects of operational processes in the industrial design of biotechnological products, in compliance with ecocompatibilty processes; Possess advanced knowledge of patent systems and on technology transfer procedures; Be fluent in written and spoken English and Italian with reference to disciplinary lexicons; Be able to work autonomously, also taking on responsibility for projects and structures; Be qualified to carry out basic and applied research, promotion and scientific development and technological innovation, professional activity and project in areas related to biotechnology disciplines; Understand regulations related to bioethics, the validation/certification of products/biotechnological processes, the protection of inventions, and safety... [-]

Bachelor in Integrated Science

Aquinas College
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Grand Rapids

At least 23 credits of the Integrated Science major must be taken at Aquinas College. This major is only available to students seeking elementary certification. [+]

Major Requirements At least 23 credits of the Integrated Science major must be taken at Aquinas College. This major is only available to students seeking elementary certification. Required: BY123, BY150, BY160, BY161, BY162; CY111 or CY155; CY112 or CY156; PC201 or PC213; PC202 or PC214; GY101,GY129; EL100 Courses BY123 Environmental Biology (3) NL BY150 Human Biology (4) NL BY160 Principles of Biology (4) NL BY161 Botany (3) BY162 Zoology (3) CY111 General Chemistry (4) NL CY155 General, Organic, and Biochemistry I (3) CY112 General Chemistry (4) CY156 General, Organic, and Biochemistry II (3) PC201 General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, Heat (4) NL PC213 General Physics with Calculus: Mechanics, Sound, Heat (4) PC202 General Physics: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, Nuclear Physics (4) PC214 General Physics with Calculus: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, Nuclear Physics (4) GY101 Earth Environments (4) NL GY129 Physical Geography of Michigan (3) NN EL100 Introduction to Environmental Studies (3) NN [-]

Bachelor of Biology

Lakeland University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Plymouth

Earning acceptance into the graduate school of your choice feels good. Attending that graduate school free of charge, while also receiving a stipend, may seem too good to be true. It is true, though, and we have the graduates to prove it. In just the past few years, we've put students into funded Ph.D. programs at prestigious schools like the University of Wisconsin, Michigan Tech University, Rutgers and North Carolina... [+]

Bachelors in Biology. Earning acceptance into the graduate school of your choice feels good. Attending that graduate school free of charge, while also receiving a stipend, may seem too good to be true. It is true, though, and we have the graduates to prove it. In just the past few years, we've put students into funded Ph.D. programs at prestigious schools like the University of Wisconsin, Michigan Tech University, Rutgers and North Carolina. "I'm really pleased that our graduates with a passion for biology have had incredible success being accepted by some pretty high-powered programs," says Paul Pickhardt, Lakeland's natural sciences division chair. "If you pursue a masters or Ph.D. in biology, and you're applying to good programs, they will pay you to go to school." We can help you get there Whether your goal is to attend graduate school or land a job with your biology bachelor's degree, we will put you in position to succeed. We cover all the academic bases, guiding you through a wide array of classes ranging from genetics to molecular biology to chemistry and physics. Lakeland's signature approach to education involves hands-on teaching and interactive learning. Our biology program is a testament to that, with application-based lab work that breaks the mold. "In our environmental science courses, for example, our students go out in the field and do science as if they were actually professional biologists," says Pickhardt, a 2011 Underkofler Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching award winner. "And across the curriculum, we try to... [-]

Bachelor in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar
Campus Full time Part time October 2017 Portugal Tomar

The Chemical and Biochemical program is a bachelor's degree designed to provide higher education training in the particular field of chemistry. [+]

Objectives The Chemical and Biochemical program is a bachelor's degree designed to provide higher education training in the particular field of chemistry. It is designed so as to allow easy access to the labour market as it places a strong emphasis on emerging areas in this field of knowledge. Being able to adapt to new processes and methods as well as solving concrete problems are the main objectives to be attained with this programme. The program constantly seeks to establish links with economic activities through specific projects. Thus and in order to strengthen these links and integrate the graduates in the labour market, the degree includes a Final Project in the third year that is developed in partnership with enterprises or organisations of the sector providing the students with the opportunity to actually contact with industry and services. The degree's versatility allows the students' integration in several industry sectors namely pulp and paper, petrochemical, fibreboard, packaging, agri-food, ink industry and others. The course curriculum is organised so as to allow the performance of such activities as process control and monitoring, quality control and auditing, training and research. Professional Goals The curricular structure allows the selection of the following competencies and professional profiles: Chemical Processes Pulp and Paper Biotechnology Agri-Food which can be developed in industries and services in areas such as: chemistry, petrochemistry, pulp and paper, graphics, agri-food, leathers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, polymers, cements and ceramics, consultancy, quality and control. ...and in the public administration: Laboratories, Training and Research, Certification and... [-]

Bachelor of Physical and Life Sciences

Felician University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Rutherford

Are you curious about the billions of living organisms that inhabit our planet? When you are a biology major at Felician University, you will have the opportunity to study the living world from the smallest cells to massive ecosystems. Biological sciences span a wide range of interests that includes anatomy and physiology, molecular biology, ecology and evolution, and health-related biology. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. Are you curious about the billions of living organisms that inhabit our planet? When you are a biology major at Felician University, you will have the opportunity to study the living world from the smallest cells to massive ecosystems. Biological sciences span a wide range of interests that includes anatomy and physiology, molecular biology, ecology and evolution, and health-related biology. With a strong foundation in the basic principles of biology, you will have many career options available to you. If you wish to pursue a career in a health-related profession, Felician University offers several accelerated, pre-professional programs with cooperating professional schools. These programs include: Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Respiratory Therapy Technology, Medical Imaging Sciences, Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy, Chiropractic, Audiology, and Podiatry. Programs Bachelor of Science in Biology Minor in Biology – 19 credits in biology courses Concentration in Biochemistry – 49 credits in biology and chemistry courses to prepare for entry into graduate programs and careers such as pharmacology, biotechnology, and chemical analysis. Points of Interest Plan and execute an original, hands-on research project in your senior year. You will complete this one-semester project in either biology or chemistry under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Get a head start when applying to post-graduate programs! Qualified candidates receive departmental letters of reference. Haven’t decided on a career direction? Switch easily between the biology major and our pre-professional programs, and vice versa, with our flexible curriculum. Gain practical experience in laboratory techniques in our newly renovated laboratories. Learn... [-]

BTech in Biotechnology

University of Johannesburg
Campus Full time February 2018 South Africa Johannesburg

Graduates of this programme are able to devise and apply specialized strategies and relevant management principles in quality control (QC) and research and development (R&D). [+]

DOORNFONTEIN CAMPUS Graduates of this programme are able to devise and apply specialized strategies and relevant management principles in quality control (QC) and research and development (R&D). They may work as supervising technicians and technologists in product and process development, and quality control. Employment may be in a laboratory, or production or sales environments. Exit-level outcomes Students should be able to: Identify a problem, formulate an appropriate hypothesis, generate experimental data, make correct interpretations and appropriate deductions. Work harmoniously with co-workers in the same working environment–work in groups with others in the solution of problems and the carrying out projects. Work independently in the mastery of Module contents, the performance of practical projects and the compilation of reports. Find, evaluate and integrate technical literature, use appropriate and correct technical language and terminology in reports. Perform the practice of science and technology effectively and responsibly without endangering the environment or the well-being of co-workers. Use different techniques to assimilate and analyse data, by reading, discussion, reporting and presentation of projects and seminars. Participate responsibly in activities that impinge on societal quality of life. Investigate further possibilities of training and employment. Demonstrate the ability to relate the field of study to society and thus know where those skills are likely to be required. Assessment criteria A student requires a semester mark of 40% to gain entrance to the final assessment opportunity. The semester and final assessment mark weight is 50:50. A student needs a final mark of 50% to pass a module.... [-]

Bachelor in Biotechnology

Vytautas Magnus University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Lithuania Kaunas

The programme applies scientific and engineering principles to living organisms in order to produce products and services of value to society. The programme of innovative combination of theory and application will provide graduates with a knowledge base and a set of skills that will make them very competitive in biotechnology, biopharmaceutics and environment protection employment fields also for laboratory jobs in the academic or industrial sectors. [+]

Bachelors in Biology. The programme applies scientific and engineering principles to living organisms in order to produce products and services of value to society. The programme of innovative combination of theory and application will provide graduates with a knowledge base and a set of skills that will make them very competitive in biotechnology, biopharmaceutics and environment protection employment fields also for laboratory jobs in the academic or industrial sectors. The programme is specifically designed to integrate the laboratory and lecture components through the use of an experimental approach to learning in biotechnological, genetics and molecular biology laboratories. Hands-on research experience is deepen through an extended independent research projects. Feedback of lecturers and students “Biotechnology programme gives very broad choice for career opportunities in variety of science and industry fields. It makes this programme one of most popular in Vytautas Magnus University.” Prof. Gintautas Saulis, Head of the programme. Competencies acquired Graduates of the programme will be able to: apply fundamental knowledge of biology, biological processes, and the scientific method to solve problems in biotechnology; integrate biological knowledge and concepts with the legal, ethical, and business perspectives of the biotechnology/life sciences industry; work in groups or individually to develop written and oral presentations that effectively communicate scientific concepts and opinions using language appropriate to the discipline; apply major quantitative and computational skills and tools to solve problems in the biotechnology/life sciences industry; work in biotechnological industry laboratories; plan and conduct reliable, evidence-based laboratories, field studies or industry-focused projects, by selecting and... [-]