Bachelor's Degree in Arts in France

Compare Bachelor Programs in Arts in France 2017

Arts

A bachelor's degree is a hallmark of higher education. It is given to those who dedicate three to seven years studying a specific program. A bachelor's degree can be earned in a variety of disciplines in the arts and sciences.

The Arts refers to any field of study that involves more creative thinking as opposed to scientific, mathematical thinking. Many arts programs are focused on literature, while others involve practicing the fine arts like painting or music.

France is currently among the 20 best performing countries in terms of the economy due to their excellent results-oriented higher education learning. Most of the courses at universities are offered in the French language. France has 60 public and 100 private universities.

Top Bachelor Programs in Arts in France 2017

Read More

Licence Pro - Métiers de l'internet et du multimédia

ITECOM Art Design Paris
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 France Paris

La Licence Professionnelle « Métiers de l’Internet et du Multimédia » est dispensée à Itecom Art Design en partenariat avec l’IUT de Troyes – Université de Reims Champagne Ardennes. Elle assure l’insertion professionnelle des diplômés dans les domaines des technologies numériques de l’information et de la communication. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. La Licence Professionnelle « Métiers de l’Internet et du Multimédia » est dispensée à Itecom Art Design en partenariat avec l’IUT de Troyes – Université de Reims Champagne Ardennes. Elle assure l’insertion professionnelle des diplômés dans les domaines des technologies numériques de l’information et de la communication. Cette licence pro (niveau II) forme à la maîtrise de technologies numériques de pointe dans les métiers du multimédia en général, de manager des projets dans le web, tandis qu’une partie du programme aborde les aspects marketing, communication, juridique, financier et pratique qui permettent aux diplômés de gérer des projets et d’entreprendre dans le web. DÉBOUCHÉS Développeur Web Intégrateur rich média Concepteur et réalisateur web ou multimédia Assistant chef de projet internet Consultant internet, intranet, extranet Créateur d’entreprise PME/PMI Chargé de communication PME/PMI SECTEURS D'ACTIVITÉ Agence ou studio de création de supports multimédias, Web Agency, Société de services en ingénierie informatique (SSII), Industrie de numérique et de production interactifs en ligne, Presse, Audiovisuel, Commerce électronique et marketing… PROGRAMME FORMATION Elle repose sur 9 unités d’enseignements, dont la participation à la Junior Conseil, qui permet l’hébergement de projets et sert d’incubateur maison. Harmonisation (développement web, ergonomie, esthétique..) Solutions web pour l’entreprise Web marketing Ingénierie du projet Management d’équipe E-CRM Ingénierie des contenus Culture des entreprises numériques Junior conseil ADMISSION À L’ÉCOLE Titulaires d’un bac+2 dans le domaine du web et/ou de l’informatique (DUT SRC, DUT informatique, L2, BTS Informatique et réseaux pour l’industrie et les services techniques,... [-]

Bachelor of Business in Culinary Arts

Le Cordon Bleu Paris
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 France Paris

Le Cordon Bleu Paris launches a Bachelor of Business program dedicated to students looking for educational excellence to acquire and develop technical and managerial skills in the Culinary Arts field. [+]

Le Cordon Bleu Paris launches a Bachelor of Business program dedicated to students looking for educational excellence to acquire and develop technical and managerial skills in the Culinary Arts field. Become a Le Cordon Bleu Paris student: TO JOIN ONE OF THE WORLD’S MOST PRESTIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS, steeped in history with a rich heritage spanning over 120 years. TO STUDY AT THE BRAND-NEW, STATE-OF-THE-ART FLAGSHIP CAMPUS IN PARIS, alongside the River Seine and close to the Eiffel Tower, and to benefit from some of the most advanced facilities and equipment to prepare you for tomorrow’s hospitality world. TO GAIN ONE OF THE INDUSTRY’S MOST COMPREHENSIVE AND SOUGHT-AFTER DEGREES. TO LIVE AND LEARN IN THE WORLD’S TOP TOURIST DESTINATION, PARIS, CAPITAL OF GASTRONOMY, CULTURE, TREND-SETTING AND LUXURY. Studying in the heart of Europe is a great way to foster your future career and have the experience of a lifetime. TO LEARN IN A HIGHLY MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT, through a program taught in English as the main language of instruction and dedicated to French know-how and luxury services. TO BE PART OF A GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL NETWORK AND STUDY AT ONE OF LE CORDON BLEU CAMPUSES ABROAD, to make the most of your experience internationally. THE BACHELOR program is intended for: STUDENTS LOOKING TO BECOME EXPERTS in the international hospitality industry through an education which combines academic teaching, multiple international experiences, hands-on projects and field visits. YOUNG STUDENTS LOOKING TO STRENGTHEN their knowledge and managerial skills related to culinary arts. YOUNG PROFESSIONALS LOOKING TO DEVELOP... [-]

Bachelor of Fine Arts in Fashion Design

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 France Paris

The art and business of fashion give form and function to clothing, a basic human need, imbuing it with meaning in the ever-evolving language of style. The Fashion Design courses at PCA are intimate and hands-on, allowing for each student to be closely followed by his or her instructor. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. With a lifetime of experience of fashion, in front of and behind the curtain, I am convinced that Paris should be at the heart of a fashion education. No other place in the world has the diversity you find here – from Haute Couture to Ready-to-Wear to market-driven fashion. – Donald Potard, Chair of Fashion Design The art and business of fashion give form and function to clothing, a basic human need, imbuing it with meaning in the ever-evolving language of style. The Fashion Design courses at PCA are intimate and hands-on, allowing for each student to be closely followed by his or her instructor. Our classrooms emulate the working process of a professional design studio from conceptual drawings to the selection of colors and fabrics, as well as pattern-making and the construction of finished garments. Students acquire an understanding of tools, materials, construction techniques and textile design methods, enabling them to express their individual creative visions. Intensive concept and design courses, weekly critiques, workshops with industry professionals and the study of Parisian prêt-à-porter help students to develop originality and acquire an understanding of their craft. Beyond the school atelier, exposure to trade fairs, designer shows and museum exhibitions all foster a keen understanding of the European marketplace. Visiting critics help familiarize students with the design requirements and specificities of various markets, while company-driven projects expose students to the real world challenges they will face in the business of style. Senior year culminates... [-]

Bachelor of Fine Arts in Communication Design

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 France Paris

The digital revolution has opened up communication design to new disciplines that require students to excel not only in traditional design skills, but in design research methodology, human-centered concept development and system design processes. [+]

The digital revolution has opened up communication design to new disciplines that require students to excel not only in traditional design skills, but in design research methodology, human-centered concept development and system design processes. Communication designers give form to information in advertising, publishing and editorial design, corporate and exhibition design, websites, multimedia, environmental graphics, signs and maps, service design, interaction design, film and video. In all these fields, the need to clearly and succinctly inform, entertain and persuade remains a critical concern. Located in an internationally renowned mecca for artists and designers, PCA offers Communication Design majors a unique opportunity to broaden their cultural and creative perspectives. Not only is the metropolitan landscape an ideal setting to experience graphic design in action, but the city’s vibrant community of design professionals is a rich resource for students as they develop their own visual language. The comprehensive curriculum at PCA establishes a solid foundation in visual form and design principles, as well as addressing the methodologies and issues behind contemporary graphic design. Visits to Parisian art and design institutions like the Pompidou Center, the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, La Gaité Lyrique, and the Palais de Tokyo provide a wealth of opportunities to view the trajectory of European communication design from its historical roots through to its latest trends. Curriculum Foundation Year Drawing I Materials and Dimensions I City as Studio Introduction to Digital Media I Introduction to Art & Design Critical Thinking & Writing I Drawing II Materials and Dimensions II Introduction... [-]

Undergraduate Core: Liberal Studies

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time September 2017 France Paris

To educate and to inspire: these are the two main goals of the Liberal Studies department. Through our courses we ensure that our students are fully equipped with the capacity to write, think and communicate clearly about their work, but we also assure that their creativity and imagination find a broad space for expression and expansion. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. To educate and to inspire: these are the two main goals of the Liberal Studies department. Through our courses we ensure that our students are fully equipped with the capacity to write, think and communicate clearly about their work, but we also assure that their creativity and imagination find a broad space for expression and expansion. The interdisciplinary Liberal Studies curriculum provides students with a grounding in general humanities – history, philosophy, languages and literatures – as well as social sciences and sciences. The courses taught within the department help students understand how to place themselves within the world and within the history of their chosen practice, providing the context they need to navigate the complexities of contemporary culture. In the Freshman year, students take “Critical Thinking & Writing”, a foundational “great books” course and a necessary stepping stone to higher level courses. It provides a general education in the humanities that combines literature, poetry, the history of philosophy, and the history of art. Focused on the close reading of influential texts, it is geared at helping freshman students develop as analytical readers and thinkers, and acquire or perfect the writing skills they need. In addition to a set of core courses in the history of art and design for the specific majors and degrees, a wide selection of Liberal Studies electives enables students to broaden their knowledge and sharpen their capacity for analytical enquiry. Courses cover an extensive range of disciplines, with... [-]

Bts Bachelor And Digital Design

Autograf
Campus Full time 3 years October 2017 France Paris

The BTS and the second and third year of Bachelor in Digital Design are performed in parallel and enable obtaining a double degree, the BTS state diploma awarded by the Ministry of Education and the Bachelor International in Graphic Design, Multimedia option. [+]

The BTS and the second and third year of Bachelor in Digital Design are performed in parallel and enable obtaining a double degree, the BTS state diploma awarded by the Ministry of Education and the Bachelor International in Graphic Design, Multimedia option. This training meets the conceptual and semantic learning related to communication (message quality, relevance means), plastic (composition, typography, graphics, color) and technological (infographic control means, knowledge of printing systems). It forms digital designer working on digital and interactive design supports: intranet and internet, DVD, mobile applications, creation of animated or 3D ... This training requires a mandatory internship in a professional environment, a minimum of 6 weeks within a communications agency or a graphic design studio designing digital and interactive products. Formation's goal : Become a digital designer to control the communication strategy and create products on media and various digital media. entry requirement: Having already made an Upgrade Applied Arts (Manaa) or a year of training in applied arts. Prerequisite: Creativity, multidisciplinary technological sensitivity, communication skills, knowledge of the IT environment and software (Illustrator, Photoshop, Indesign), art and contemporary culture. Trades: independent communication designer for digital broadcasting, employee or consultant as assistant artistic director in advertising agencies, studios or workshops graphic design for digital broadcasting. Continuing Studies : Alongside the course of the upgrade class and the BTS, Autograf offers validated by equivalence a BA in Digital Design that can be directed towards the Master of Art Director in Graphic Design, Digital creation option, RNCP as Level... [-]

Bachelor Visual Merchandising

IFA Paris
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 France Paris

The IFA Paris Bachelor in Visual Merchandising is unique, this full-time program is organized over three academic years with a focus on acquiring the professional skills required by this fast-moving industry. Students are given flexibility in the second year when they decide to major in Marketing or Visual Merchandising. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. IFA Paris Bachelor in cooperation with Academia Italiana DURATION: 3 year program in English CAMPUSES: Paris, Shanghai, Florence FORMAT: Paris/Florence/Paris or Shanghai/Florence/Paris NEXT INTAKE: September 2017 ECTS CREDITS: 180 APPLICATION FEE: €150 TUITION FEE/YEAR: €9,400 in Paris, ¥70,000 in Shanghai LIMITED TO: 25 students per class "Captivate consumers with stunning visual displays" INTRODUCTION Have you ever passed by the window displays of Selfridges, Bloomingdales or Printemps and stopped on your track as you admired their design? At the opposite of the spectrum, have you ever wondered what is this instinct that urges you to push the opaque fiber glass doors of the Comme des Garcons flagship store in Rue du Faubourg St. Honore in Paris? Whether we are astounded by their complexity or our curiosity or intrigued by their apparent simplicity, stores that achieve to make customers « pop in » to take a look are the ones that have mastered the art of visual merchandising. Visual merchandising is a highly ultilized platform applied by brands to promote a visual concept to its customers. Visual merchandisers are highly sought after, as they develop visual strategies and promote products, services in store and in catalogs, to excite and engage. This first point of contact is also known as silent selling. Too often reduced to window dressing, visual merchandising is a much more complex function of retail as it entails not only props or external decor in general but also interior architecture. The specific path... [-]

Bachelor of Fine Arts in Photography

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 France Paris

The photography curriculum balances analog and digital technologies with an emphasis on developing a creative vision and gaining a solid understanding of the image-making process. The program considers not only the technical aspects of image creation and production, but also examines how photographs are disseminated, presented, discussed, used, documented or archived: in short, how they function in today’s image driven society. [+]

Contemporary photography goes beyond the technical concerns of mastering the technique; it is about the nature, the power of the content and how it can be used, because the image is not only a tool of transmission but also an instrument of understanding. — Klaus Fruchtnis, Chair of Photography The photography curriculum balances analog and digital technologies with an emphasis on developing a creative vision and gaining a solid understanding of the image-making process. The program considers not only the technical aspects of image creation and production, but also examines how photographs are disseminated, presented, discussed, used, documented or archived: in short, how they function in today’s image driven society. The department equally addresses technical and conceptual skills, since both are essential to any successful photographic practice. Students are encouraged to work cross-disciplinary and may attend courses in other departments such as Communication Design, Fine Arts, or Fashion, in order to think about photography’s broader applications, implications and contexts. Through a progressive core seminar structure, lectures, lab and studio courses as well as an internship, students gain first-hand commercial experience from practicing photographers and learn about innovative, cutting-edge approaches relevant to a photographic practice, while defining their own unique way of working. The four-year photography program includes a direct-entry option, allowing students to specialize in image-making from the first year. However, students who have enrolled in the more general Foundation year program can still declare their major in Photography after the end of the Foundation year and will need to... [-]

Bachelor of Fine Arts in Fine Arts

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 France Paris

With Paris as its extraordinarily rich cultural setting, the PCA Fine Arts Department promotes the development of artistic skills, the expression of creative processes, and an informed awareness of how art practice intersects with current visual, cultural and societal concerns. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. Teaching art is about initiating total involvement, passion, questioning and questioning the questioning, experimenting, process, investigating ideas, inventing and finding visual answers. – Véronique Devoldère, Chair of Fine Arts With Paris as its extraordinarily rich cultural setting, the PCA Fine Arts Department promotes the development of artistic skills, the expression of creative processes, and an informed awareness of how art practice intersects with current visual, cultural and societal concerns. Students gain a strong foundation in the artistic tradition via both established and new media, thus enriching their capacity for communication and expression as a whole. The curriculum balances a full investigation of traditional media: drawing, painting and sculpture, with extensive explorations in video, installation, performance, photography and digital imaging. The new focus program in the junior year allows students to choose a 2D, 3D or 4D orientation. Elective courses in other departments open students to new and different methods and processes. Interdisciplinary practice provokes students to pursue and develop individual artistic modes of inquiry. Application of theory and criticism shape students’ ability to work and think critically and analytically. Courses in Art History and Critical Studies, critiques, debates and tutorials, and the considerable resources available in Paris, direct students to an informed exploration within both historical and contemporary art practices. Museum and gallery visits are an integral aspect of the curriculum. Curriculum Foundation Drawing I Materials and Dimensions I City as Studio Introduction to Digital Media I Introduction to Art & Design Critical... [-]

Bachelor of Fine Arts in Interior Design

Paris College Of Art
Campus Full time 5 years September 2017 France Paris

The Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree in Interior Design encourages a thorough yet versatile design approach, following systematic and coordinated methodologies. With an emphasis on Retail and Commercial Spaces, the program is intended for undergraduate students aiming to become professional interior designers specialized in retail, commercial, exhibition and event spaces. [+]

Interior design is the art of defining spaces that surround us…from the inside out. Whether within intimately small spaces or much larger schemes, within residential, commercial or work related places, the interior designer must demonstrate the ability to adapt and develop, way beyond simple decoration, subtle design proposals both sensitive to context and responsive to complex constraints and specific requirements. The Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree in Interior Design encourages a thorough yet versatile design approach, following systematic and coordinated methodologies. With an emphasis on Retail and Commercial Spaces, the program is intended for undergraduate students aiming to become professional interior designers specialized in retail, commercial, exhibition and event spaces. Inter-disciplinary in nature and structure, the studio and the classroom serve as complementary spaces for design thinking and creative expression as well as technical and professional skills development. The course builds up towards a final individual project which is presented before a panel of critics, followed by a 6 month mandatory internship and thesis. The significant studio practice and the plurality of choices offered by this program prepare graduates for immediate insertion into the interior design field in Paris and internationally, or for entry into specialized Masters degree programs. Set within the unique context of Paris, with its rich historical and cultural heritage, prestigious and innovative interior design concepts and renowned leading figures in the field, the school is an ideal setting to pursue the development of a clear and personal creative direction within this discipline. Curriculum Foundation Drawing I... [-]

Bachelor in Musicology

West Catholic University - Université Catholique de l’Ouest
Campus Full time 6 semesters September 2017 France Angers

Bachelor in Musicology This program is taught in FRENCH [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. Bachelor in Musicology This program is taught in FRENCH OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION L’objectif de la licence de Musicologie est de permettre à l’étudiant de: - maîtriser les outils musicaux (instrument de musique, voix, MAO), ainsi que la lecture, l’analyse et l’écriture de la musique - diriger une formation vocale dans un répertoire simple - accompagner et harmoniser au clavier une mélodie - savoir se produire sur scène, tant au niveau des musiques acoustiques qu’amplifiées - connaître les principaux courants de l’histoire des musiques occidentales et extra-occidentales, et savoir situer un morceau de musique dans son contexte - mobiliser ses connaissances historiques et techniques dans le champ de la musique afin de produire une réflexion claire, ordonnée et convaincante à l’écrit ou à l’oral - savoir utiliser les ressources bibliographiques et documentaires liées au domaine musical ; se tenir informé de l’actualité et de l’évolution des tendances artistiques dans son domaine - maîtriser les principaux logiciels liés au domaine musical (édition, composition), les techniques de traitement informatique des données et les principaux logiciels de présentation - savoir utiliser l’informatique pour composer de la musique illustrant des images, des récits, des personnages, etc. [-]

Bachelor in Applied Arts

West Catholic University - Université Catholique de l’Ouest
Campus Full time 6 semesters September 2017 France Angers

Bachelor Applied Arts [+]

OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION THIS PROGRAM IS TAUGHT IN FRENCH L’objectif de la licence d’Arts plastiques est de permettre à l’étudiant de: - acquérir une solide culture généraliste dans les grandes périodes artistiques et les concepts permettant d’alimenter la pratique artistique - maîtriser les méthodes propres à la pratique artistique (esthétique, approches plurielles) à travers des workshops et des ateliers - développer des compétences transversales basées sur le croisement des savoirs et la préparation à l’insertion professionnelle, à travers des parcours spécialisés, des enseignements méthodologiques et des stages. Une telle formation donne accès à de nombreux métiers, où sensibilité artistique, curiosité intellectuelle, sens critique et capacité pratique sont requis. [-]

Bachelor in Graphic Arts & Design

Groupe ESC Troyes in Champagne
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 France Troyes

The bachelor program offers several internships and pedagogical projects with companies for general design careers through three options: Communication Design, Product Design, or Space Design. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. Groupe ESC Troyes School of Design trains students for design careers. The bachelor program offers several internships and pedagogical projects with companies for general design careers through three options: Communication Design, Product Design, or Space Design. Accessible after a high school diploma, the School of Design provides three-year training in creative and design careers. The training is based on simple, solid principles of creative openness and the mastery of technical tools connected with the business world. Teaching is based on the acquisition of essential basics and new materials in design in order to develop students’ creativity and its concrete application. This Bachelor requires a sufficient grounding in French and in English. 3 YEARS TO DEVELOP YOUR CREATIVE POTENTIAL Year 1 Year 1 is dedicated to waken curiosity and develop imagination; Students conclude their first year with a 1-month internship. Courses examples: Design Culture, Fundamentals Tools of Design, Economic Culture, Individual and team projects, History of Art and Architecture, History of Applied Arts, Semiology, Expressive design, Drawing live models, Designing space, Calligraphy, Typography, Theory of color, Page layout, Visual Identity, Volume, General Economics, Business Economics, Basics in Marketing, Marketing Design, I.T. Environment, Word processing, Photoshop©, Illustrator©, Acrobat©, In Design©, … Year 2 Year 2 is based on acquiring deeper professional knowledge in design and choosing a major between : Communication Design, Product Design and Space Design. Students are entitled to experience professional internship in France or abroad (5 months minimum - between the end... [-]

Bachelor Fashion Marketing

IFA Paris
Campus Full time 3 - 3 years September 2017 France Paris

The Bachelors in Fashion Marketing has a structure that enhances the possibility to have a robust business curriculum for fashion that stimulates creativity and talent while exploring the dichotomies between East and West in terms of strategies for marketing, communication, distribution and branding. [+]

IFA Paris Bachelor under accreditation by IDEL as "International Bachelor" DURATION: 3 year program in English CAMPUSES: Paris, Shanghai FORMAT: Flexible NEXT INTAKE: September 2017 ECTS CREDITS: 180 APPLICATION FEE: €150 TUITION FEE/YEAR: €8,400 in Paris, ¥70,000 in Shanghai LIMITED TO: 25 students per class "Behind every successful designer, there is a successful business person" INTRODUCTION The Bachelor in Fashion Marketing has an innovative structure that enhances the possibility to have a robust business curriculum for fashion that stimulates creativity and talent while exploring the dichotomies between East and West in terms of strategies for marketing, communication, distribution and branding. Its counts on a common first year and is intended to be split into two different courses for the second and third year, in order to give a more profound and specific practical knowledge of the preferred specialization, ending to a specific award. The modules offer a systemic training, a constant challenge for all students pacing each specific ability through individual assignments, teamwork and discovery of the industry. The practical application of the theoretical knowledge is warranted by field trips and workshops given by fashion, business, branding and marketing experts. While the course is structured around unique module and learning experiences, the highlight is our faculty of skilled and motivated lecturers who come from more than 20 different countries. This veritable educational melting pot allows the students to benefit from different cultural perspectives which in turns stimulates their propensity to analyze and solve issues in creative and unconventional ways. The... [-]

Bachelor Fashion Design & Technology

IFA Paris
Campus Full time 3 - 3 years September 2017 France Paris

The Bachelor in Fashion Design & Technology is the IFA Paris signature program. It combines the French fashion heritage with the latest technological changes and an international perspective to meet the current fashion industry requirements. [+]

Best Bachelors in Arts in France 2017. IFA Paris Bachelor accredited by IDEL as "International Bachelor" DURATION: 3 year program in English CAMPUSES: Paris, Shanghai, Istanbul FORMAT: Flexible NEXT INTAKE: September 2017 ECTS CREDITS: 180 APPLICATION FEE: €150 TUITION FEE/YEAR: €8,400 in Paris, ¥85,000 in Shanghai, €7,400 in Istanbul LIMITED TO: 25 students per class "This program is complete, intensive and exciting" INTRODUCTION The Bachelor in Fashion Design & Technology is the IFA Paris signature program. It combines the French fashion heritage with the latest technological changes and an international perspective to meet the current fashion industry requirements. The innovative teaching methods mixing traditional lectures, practical workshops, personal researches, experimentation, peer to peer presentations and various visits, lead students to become creative and pragmatic, curious and analytical, imaginative and excellent technicians and prepare them to the possibility of an international career. The one to one approach allows them to develop their own creative universe while being adaptable to different styles, types of brand and market segments at the same time. This very complete, intensive, varied and exciting program trains fashion lovers to the jobs of Fashion Designer. However the perfect knowledge of fashion products and creative process it provides, allows participants to also achieve positions such as Stylist, Pattern Maker, Production Manager, Independent Designer, or even Collection Director, Art Director, or Merchandiser when completed by IFA Paris' Master of Arts in Contemporary Fashion Design. ADMISSION Admission requirements: 18 years old minimum High school graduate or equivalence IELTS 5.5 or TOEFL... [-]