Bachelor of Science Degrees in Psychology

Compare 81 Bachelors of Science in Psychology

Psychology

People who earn a degree in psychology can directly help to better the lives of others by learning problem solving skills and contributing to the development of new technology, products and medications. From helping to put criminals behind bars to assisting in the psychological development of children, the field of psychology covers a wide variety of interests.

Psychology concentrates on the study of human behavior, including thoughts, motivations and feelings. The many facets of psychology range from social and cognitive studies to developmental and clinical psychology. Students in the psychology program are exposed to statistics, analysis, physiology of the brain and an in-depth study of how it all affects behavior.

People interested in psychological matters may wonder, what is a BSc in Psychology? A Bachelor of Science in Psychology is essential for people wishing to further their career in the field of psychology; however, the knowledge obtained can be applied to a wide variety of industries. Having a bachelor’s degree can also help people increase their earning potential. Employers across many industries look for people who have obtained their bachelor’s degrees, as it means they have the capacity to think on a higher level.

The cost of tuition can vary dramatically from one educational institution to another. People who are interested in applying for the psychology program at a specific school should contact the school for tuition information. Students who are accepted to the program may be eligible for financial assistance.

Getting a Bachelor of Science in Psychology puts students on the pathway to an advanced career in vocational, school or marriage counseling. Students can also combine a BSc in Psychology with other fields of interest to become an expert in forensic engineering, clinical or sports psychology.

People who are challenged with a busy schedule may feel like it is impossible to further their education. Now, they can apply for the school of their choice online. Some schools offer online courses, making it even easier to obtain a degree in psychology. It is never too late to further your education and improve your life. To find the institution that meets your financial and educational needs, search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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BS in Psychology

University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
Campus Full time 4 years September 2018 USA Bradford

Many of us want to know why people behave the way they do. And some of us want to really know why, and then do something to help. If you're one of those people, then a psychology major may be what you're looking for. [+]

Many of us want to know why people behave the way they do. And some of us want to really know why, and then do something to help. If you're one of those people, then a psychology major may be what you're looking for.

Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience — from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centers to mental health care services, “the understanding of behavior" is the focus of the psychology. Psychology majors at Pitt-Bradford take courses such as: Introduction to Psychology, Personality Theories, Child Development, Statistics, Social Psychology, Experimental Psychology, Abnormal Psychology and Counseling Psychology.... [-]


BSc in Psychology

Memorial University, Grenfell Campus
Campus Full time 4 years September 2018 Canada Corner Brook

You can major in psychology through a bachelor of arts degree or a bachelor of science degree at Grenfell Campus. You can also complete an honours in psychology through either degree. [+]

You can major in psychology through a bachelor of arts degree or a bachelor of science degree at Grenfell Campus. 

You can also complete an honours in psychology through either degree. 

Why study psychology at Grenfell?

Psychology seeks to understand how we think, act, and feel. By exploring mental functions and actions, we can understand individual and group behaviour. Grenfell's psychology program offers students a wide variety of topics and providing you with skills and knowledge that will have relevance throughout your life including:

Critical thinking Problem solving abilities Analytic abilities Writing skills Presentation skills

Near of the end of your studies, you'll have the opportunity to present your research to your peers, family, and the community at the Psychology Student Research Conference. It's a celebration of the work of our senior students and an impressive showcase of their skills in the research domain, further demonstrating the dynamic and comprehensive characteristics of psychology.... [-]


Bachelor of Science in Psychology- online

Thomas University
Online & Campus Combined Part time September 2018 USA Thomasville

The Psychology degree can be attained via campus-based studies or fully online, or a student can mix their courses, taking some on campus and some online. The Mission of the undergraduate program in Psychology is to prepare students for a wide range of career options in human services, administration, criminal justice, health, business, and education. The Psychology department has two student organizations: Psi Chi is the TU chapter of the National Honor Society in Psychology and the Psych Club which enhances a community spirit among the Psychology majors. [+]

BScs in Psychology. The Psychology degree can be attained via campus-based studies or fully online, or a student can mix their courses, taking some on campus and some online. The Mission of the undergraduate program in Psychology is to prepare students for a wide range of career options in human services, administration, criminal justice, health, business, and education. The Psychology department has two student organizations: Psi Chi is the TU chapter of the National Honor Society in Psychology and the Psych Club which enhances a community spirit among the Psychology majors. Important features: Individual attention Develop interpersonal, analytical, writing and research skills Prepare for a wide range of career options in human services, criminal justice and education for example Engage in current research in the field of psychology; first step for a TU graduate degree in Psychology, Social Work or Rehabilitation Counseling Psychology is the study of behavior, mental processes, emotions and their biological bases. Understanding self and others is a tremendously valuable tool that helps psychology majors prepare for careers in a broad variety of settings. These may include medicine, law and law enforcement, education, healthcare, youth services, business, architecture, engineering, wellness, sports, science, and research. The Thomas University Psychology Department fosters a professional atmosphere of intellectual curiosity by encouraging students to examine the latest research trends within the field and to obtain firsthand practical experience alongside regional mental healthcare providers. The online psychology degree from Thomas University is a convenient way for both traditional and non-traditional students to... [-]

B.S. in Industrial Psychology and Safety

Embry Riddle Aeronautical University
Campus Full time 8 semesters September 2018 USA Prescott

The Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Psychology & Safety provides the student with skills and knowledge for a career in workplace psychology/human resources, aviation safety, occupational safety, organizational training or related disciplines, and is normally completed in eight semesters. [+]

The Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Psychology & Safety provides the student with skills and knowledge for a career in workplace psychology/human resources, aviation safety, occupational safety, organizational training or related disciplines, and is normally completed in eight semesters. The program delivers an effective foundation in human behavior and cognition as it relates to safety and organizational effectiveness that prepares the student for a wide variety of organizational settings or for advanced study at the graduate level. The Bachelor of Science in Industrial Psychology & Safety is housed within the Department of Behavioral & Safety Sciences. The Department is located in the Robertson Aviation Safety Center where classrooms, laboratories, and faculty offices are convenient for daily interaction with other students and faculty. The Department of Behavioral & Safety Sciences also provides a unique opportunity on the Prescott campus for students to interact with graduate students and collaborate on research and practice activities. The Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Psychology & Safety is designed to provide the student the following expertise: Knowledge of basic psychological principles and theories, and how those are applied to the study of individuals and organizations, including the role of psychological constructs and research as they relate to the science and practice of safety. This includes sufficient Psychology coursework for graduate study in Psychology or related disciplines, if desired. Understanding of the breadth of application for the discipline of industrial psychology and safety, including personnel selection, group dynamics, leadership, human factors in organizational systems, occupational... [-]

Bachelor Degree Program Psychology (B.Sc.)

Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg
Campus Full time 3 years October 2017 Germany Neuruppin

The Bachelor Degree Program Psychology (B.Sc.) provides a holistic view of perception, experience and behavior of the people in the foreground and linked in a special way the presentation of a broad basic knowledge of psychology with practice in the field of clinical psychology and psychotherapy. [+]

BScs in Psychology. ​The Bachelorstudiengang Psychology characterized by modern teaching, learning and examination forms and a consistent theory and practice networking. For example, which is based on concrete cases of teaching and learning method of problem based learning (PBL) is used. This means that students in small groups based on patient stories develop theoretical and applied learning objectives and edit self-study involving content from lectures, seminars and literature sources. A Germany-wide unique feature of Neuruppiner bachelor program Psychology represents the close proximity to the clinical practice. The integrated Kliniktag gives our students the opportunity to learn about the daily life and the interaction of psychologists, doctors and nurses on site and in direct contact with patients. Students acquire while studying in-depth and broad knowledge both in the neurobiological, cognitive, emotional, social and differential approaches of psychology and in psychological assessment and scientific methodology. They learn to judge the results of research of the subject and to evaluate and develop a methodically secure understanding of problems of research. In addition, they also learn to develop their own research design, conduct, evaluate and present. Successful completion of Bachelor's program "Psychology (B.Sc.)" guarantees a safe place of study in the master program "Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy (M.Sc.)". MAIN AREAS OF STUDY Top-level Areas of study are interdisciplinary (eg in close cooperation with the medicine, neuroscience, social sciences and humanities as well as the integrated "Fundamental Studies"), internationality (a wide international networks in particular in the field of psychotherapy, research collaborations and internship opportunities... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Psychology

University of North Alabama
Campus Full time September 2018 USA Florence

The Department of Psychology offers a major program in psychology leading to the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree; a minor program in psychology; service coursework for the program for the preparation of secondary teachers offered through the College of Education; coursework applicable to general studies component requirements in all university programs; and a variety of courses required or recommended in other programs. [+]

The Department of Psychology offers a major program in psychology leading to the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree; a minor program in psychology; service coursework for the program for the preparation of secondary teachers offered through the College of Education; coursework applicable to general studies component requirements in all university programs; and a variety of courses required or recommended in other programs. Programs in the department are designed to serve students who wish to prepare for graduate study in psychology and in related fields calling for supporting concentrations or courses in psychology. For majors, a modern foreign languages through the intermediate level and additional coursework in biology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics are strongly recommended. Prospective majors should consult with the chair of the department in the selection of advanced psychology electives. Students with majors in psychology are required to take an exit examination and attain a minimum score based on the national norms of the test for graduation. Requirements for a major in psychology COURSES IN MAJOR CREDIT General Psychology (PY 201) 3 Introduction to the Psychology Major (PY 222) 1 Learning (PY 321) 3 Physiological Psychology (PY 361) 3 Psychological Statistics (PY 375) 3 Experimental Psychology (PY 465W) 3 Psychology Electives 18 Total in major: 34* Note: *30 hours prior to 2008-2009 catalog - 33 hours starting with the 2008-2009 catalog *33 hours prior to 2013-2014 catalog - 34 hours starting with the 2013-2014 catalog Prescribed Supporting Courses: CREDIT Introductory Biology (BI 101-102) or... [-]

Bachelor Of Science Applied Psychology

Diploma University of Applied Sciences
Online & Campus Combined Full time Part time 8 semesters October 2017 Germany Hamburg Magdeburg Munich Germany Online + 4 more

In the Bachelor Program "Applied Psychology (B.Sc.)" the DIPLOMA School will trained in the substantive, technical and methodological and applied-practical subjects of psychology. The program provides academic knowledge in the basic subjects such as general psychology, developmental psychology and differential psychology as well as detailed statistics, diagnostic and methodological skills. [+]

BScs in Psychology. In the bachelor's degree program "Applied Psychology (B.Sc.)"The DIPLOMA Hochschule They are trained in the substantive, technical and methodological and applied-practical subjects of psychology. The program provides academic knowledge in the basic subjects such as general psychology, developmental psychology and differential psychology as well as detailed statistics, diagnostic and methodological skills. The program "Applied Psychology (B.Sc.)" is designed to qualify students to professionals in the practice-oriented psychology, with its references to the disciplines health and economy. In-depth expertise of applied psychology are the competencies in the priority areas Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Psychosocial prevention and Health Psychology as Clinical Psychology and psychotherapy added. In the course of the course the DIPLOMA University cooperates with the MEU Study Center in Magdeburg, The responsible person responsible for the study center in Magdeburg is Prof. Dr. Armbruster. He is available for questions about the study or the end of the study organization at your disposal. The MEU is a subsidiary of the MAPP Institute, a nationally recognized, prestigious training center for psychotherapy. For our students is a choice, the remote program with the local connection to the real class lectures (1x per semester à 3 days) in Magdeburg or From WS 2017/18 also at the DIPLOMA study centers in Hamburg or Munich to prove. The remaining contact blocks are offered as "distance learning with virtual presence phases". Objectives of the Bachelor Program "Applied Psychology (B.Sc.)" The focus of the course of studies is always on concrete exercises and reflection units,... [-]

BSc Honours in Psychology

University of Westminster - Faculty of Science and Technology
Campus Full time 3 years United Kingdom London

This course will provide you with an exciting and unique learning experience, delivered by active researchers who are passionate and knowledgeable about their subject. A number of our staff have won prestigious awards for their teaching, and we believe strongly in maintaining close links between our research and teaching, which means that you will be taught by recognised international experts. [+]

This course will provide you with an exciting and unique learning experience, delivered by active researchers who are passionate and knowledgeable about their subject. A number of our staff have won prestigious awards for their teaching, and we believe strongly in maintaining close links between our research and teaching, which means that you will be taught by recognised international experts. We are committed to understanding the place of psychology in contemporary society, and our course content is constantly updated to provide a fresh perspective into the human mind. The course is designed to enhance your chances of successfully gaining employment once you graduate, and many of our past students have pursued careers in clinical, counselling, forensic or occupational psychology. Others have used their degree in related professions, including human resources, management, market research, public relations and social work. Course content The course is structured to provide a strong psychology base from the start of your studies. What you study has been designed to meet the requirements for the Graduate Basis for Chartered Membership (GBC) of the British Psychological Society, preparing you for postgraduate training on the path to becoming a Chartered Psychologist. Teaching methods include lectures, seminars, practical classes and laboratory work, supported by online material and periods of independent study. Assessment methods may include exams, in-class tests, essays, oral and poster presentations, debates, case studies, and laboratory, practical and technical reports. Subjects of study The following subjects are indicative of what you will study on this course. Year 1... [-]

Bachelor in Psychology

Georgia Gwinnett College
Campus Full time September 2018 USA Lawrenceville

The B.S. degree in psychology is a program for students interested in a wide range of psychology professions. [+]

BScs in Psychology. The B.S. degree in psychology is a program for students interested in a wide range of psychology professions. For those students interested in pursuing a career immediately after graduation they will gain a wealth of experiences in the applied aspects of psychology that will easily transfer well to various professions. Also, those interested in obtaining advance degrees will have a strong theoretical foundation for the fields of psychology, law, business, medicine and a wide range of other graduate degrees. Program Outcome Goals A graduate of the psychology major will be able to: Understand a full spectrum of general theoretical approaches to psychology Understand that psychology sub-disciplines are interrelated Be able to relate theory to real world situations Understand basic topics of research methodology Understand the statistical tools appropriate to single variable and two variable analyses Demonstrate competence in communication (written, verbal, numeric and graphic) Demonstrate competence in critical/analytic thinking Demonstrate the ability to apply psychological theory and/or research methodology Demonstrate capacity to work collaboratively to solve problems Demonstrate appreciation of historical/philosophical context of psychology Understand that normative human behavior and experience is diverse and multidimensional Demonstrate a commitment to the ethical foundations / ethical principles of psychology Specializations Clinical/Personality. The Clinical/Personality specialization explores the relationship between typical personality development and atypical processes leading to mental illness. It involves the study of the science and practice of providing assessment and treatment services at individual, family or community levels to people with or at risk for mental illness. A... [-]

International Bachelor in Psychology

Erasmus University Rotterdam - Faculty of Social Sciences
Campus Full time 3 years September 2018 Netherlands Rotterdam

o you strive to understand why humans behave the way they do? Find out if the International Bachelor in Psychology at Erasmus University Rotterdam is the right choice for you. [+]

International Bachelor Psychology Bachelor of Science (BSc) in Psychology Do you strive to understand why humans behave the way they do? Find out if the International Bachelor in Psychology at Erasmus University Rotterdam is the right choice for you. Why study International Bachelor in Psychology in Rotterdam? Because of the theoretical and practical approach to a wide range of psychology subjects such as cognition, learning, addiction, motivation etc.; Students ranked the Dutch bachelor programme number one in the Netherlands for eleven times; Of the Problem-Based Learning method, which enables you to study more efficiently; You are a part of a group of over 100 international students and you get to mingle with Dutch students during classes. Curriculum Study programme in short Do you want to help organisations solve their problems in a professional way? Are you interested in the ways the brain functions and how you can develop talent through education? If so, this programme is the one for you! Through theory and practice you will encounter various subjects in psychology, such as cognition, learning, addiction, motivation, normal and abnormal behaviour. By choosing Rotterdam, you choose Problem-Based Learning. In small groups, you will analyse concrete problems by looking for information in books, journals and digital media. Class discussions will strengthen your bond with fellow students and encourage you to succeed. You will also develop skills which are useful in your career. First year During the Bachelor’s programme in psychology, you learn about all the subject areas of related to psychology.... [-]

Behavioral Science

International Accelerator
Campus Full time Part time September 2018 USA Boston

The Department of Applied Behavioral Science offers a curriculum through which students learn how to examine and address problems of social importance across the lifespan. Students receive training in the application of behavioral science to improve the human condition through prevention and intervention. [+]

BScs in Psychology. Overview The Department of Applied Behavioral Science offers a curriculum through which students learn how to examine and address problems of social importance across the lifespan. Students receive training in the application of behavioral science to improve the human condition through prevention and intervention. Behavioral Science The Department of Applied Behavioral Science offers two undergraduate degrees including a 33-hour Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of General Studies (B.G.S.) degree. The requirements in the major for these degree programs are the same. The difference in these two degree programs is the general education degree requirements, which are set by the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. For example, the B.A. degree requires additional hours of a foreign language. Whereas, the B.G.S. degree requires deeper study in a field outside of the student's major; therefore, students interested in a B.G.S. must either have a co-major or a minor. Students in this major are required to identify a specialty area within the Department to further hone and apply their knowledge in addressing social problems of particular interest. The Department offers a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of General Studies degree in six specialty areas. The specialty areas for student concentration are: Adults with Disabilities, Basic Research and Conceptual Foundations (with options in either), Community Health and Development, Early Childhood (with options in education and intervention, autism, and research), Organizational Behavioral Management Research and Practice, and Youth Development and Juvenile Justice. [-]

BSc in Psychology & Technology

Eindhoven University of Technology
Campus Full time 3 years September 2018 Netherlands Eindhoven

The games you play, the mobile phone you use to send text messages, the website where you do your online shopping. Technology is all around us, and is an important part of our lives. Too important to just leave it to technologists. [+]

The games you play, the mobile phone you use to send text messages, the website where you do your online shopping. Technology is all around us, and is an important part of our lives. Too important to just leave it to technologists. In Psychology & Technology you learn how technology influences people, and how you can use knowledge of psychology to let people use technology as effectively as possible. But you also learn how you can use psychology to design completely new technology applications such as motivational rehabilitation technology in healthcare, sociable robots or brain‑computer interfaces. People and technology Teaching staff and students of the Psychology & Technology program deal with a wide range of different subjects, all of which focus on the relationship between people and technology. For example: Robots that help in the household Intimate technology for showing affection at a distance Online auctions you can trust Lighting that makes you healthier and smarter Avatars that help you save energy Intelligent street lighting Persuasive technology, or how can your mobile phone help you to lose weight? And how can your shower make you use less water? Best rated in Guide to Choosing a University and Elsevier Psychology & Technology is a major which formally is part of the Bachelor's program Innovation Sciences (Technische Innovatiewetenschappen). The Innovation Sciences Bachelor’s program received a high rating in the Keuzegids Universiteiten 2016 (in Dutch) (Guide to Choosing a University 2016). The program scored highly relative to other comparable programs. In the Elsevier... [-]

Bachelor of Science (in Behavioural Studies with concentration in Psychology) (Awarded by Oklahoma City University, USA)

Management Development Institute of Singapore (MDIS)
Campus Full time Part time 18 months August 2018 Singapore

Students who successfully complete the programme will be awarded with the prestigious Bachelor of Science (in Behavioural Studies with concentration in Psychology) awarded directly by Oklahoma City University, USA. The degree will be the same as that awarded to the full-time students at the university main campus... [+]

BScs in Psychology. Objectives This programme is designed for: Qualified individuals who want to formalise their experiences and understanding in the field of Psychology Mid-career professionals and executives who are considering a career switch into the various areas of Psychology Fresh school leavers, professionals and executives who aspires to pursue an Undergraduate degree in the field of Psychology Assessment Methods Grades will be based on the quality of the students' performance in the following areas: Pre and post assignments and projects Class presentations and case studies A final examination The weightage for each area will be decided by the faculty and are usually made known to the students at first meeting if they are not stated in the course outline. Graduation Students who successfully complete the programme will be awarded with the prestigious Bachelor of Science (in Behavioural Studies with concentration in Psychology) awarded directly by Oklahoma City University, USA. The degree will be the same as that awarded to the full-time students at the university main campus. Modules Advanced Research And Analysis Anatomy And Physiology Arts and Our World Behaviour Modification Cognitive Psychology Human Development Across The life Span Social Psychology Introduction to Theories of Counseling Politics, Economics, America and the Future Management Of Personal Life Styles Values And Culture - Medical Ethics Scientific And Technical Writing Statistics For Psychologists Seminar In Clinical And Health I Seminar In Clinical And Health II Structure and Duration Full-Time Programme (for International students only) 18 months 100% taught by Oklahoma City University... [-]

B.S. in Counseling Psychology

Toccoa Falls College
Campus or Online Full time 126 hours September 2018 USA Toccoa Falls

A degree in Counseling Psychology prepares you for service within the community, the church and the family through the ministry of counseling. The Counseling Psychology Department combines the concepts of psychology and the skills of counseling within the principles of Scripture and then integrates them into practical application. The integration of one’s faith into the workplace is a challenge to all Christians, but especially for counselors who are sought out by those seeking personal changes. [+]

A degree in Counseling Psychology prepares you for service within the community, the church and the family through the ministry of counseling. The Counseling Psychology Department combines the concepts of psychology and the skills of counseling within the principles of Scripture and then integrates them into practical application. The integration of one’s faith into the workplace is a challenge to all Christians, but especially for counselors who are sought out by those seeking personal changes. As a student you will receive an academic preparation in foundational psychological and counseling concepts, intellectual preparation through advanced studies of theory and philosophy of persons and relationships, and professional preparation in counseling laboratory and practicum events. You are also encouraged to seek emotional wholeness and spiritual maturity, realizing healthy persons make better counselors. The Counseling faculty represents varied disciplines with combined years totaling 102 years of counseling and teaching experience in a variety of settings. The disciplines include a Counseling Psychologist, an Adventure-Based Counselor, a Pastoral Counselor and two Licensed Professional Counselors, one of whom specializes in Human Sexuality and Gender Identity issues. Their broad spectrum of expertise will afford you the ideal training for future ministry in any counseling context. General Education – 69 hours Bible & Theology – 30 hours BIB 213 Hermeneutics BSF 103 Foundations of Spiritual Formation NTE 103 Introduction to the New Testament NTE ___ New Testament Elective OTE 103 Introduction to the Old Testament OTE ___ Old Testament Elective SYT 303 Introduction to Theology 3 hours Theology Elective... [-]

Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Applied Psychology

United International College
Campus Full time 4 years August 2018 China Zhuhai

The UIC Applied Psychology Programme (APSY) provides a rigorous education based on a wide range of application- and research-oriented courses. Students who successfully complete our 4-year curriculum are awarded a Bachelor of Science (Honours) degree in Applied Psychology. We also provide access to national and international training practicums and internships, and encourage students to participate in ongoing faculty research. This provides students with the research knowledge and experience required for successful placement and subsequent performance in international master- and doctoral-level psychology programs. [+]

BScs in Psychology. Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Applied Psychology The UIC Applied Psychology Programme (APSY) provides a rigorous education based on a wide range of application- and research-oriented courses. Students who successfully complete our 4-year curriculum are awarded a Bachelor of Science (Honours) degree in Applied Psychology. We also provide access to national and international training practicums and internships, and encourage students to participate in ongoing faculty research. This provides students with the research knowledge and experience required for successful placement and subsequent performance in international master- and doctoral-level psychology programs. APSY is specifically designed to provide students with a basic knowledge of psychological science, which they can use in the development of their respective cultures, and to enhance their personal life situations. In addition, our programme provides graduates with the basic skills, motivation, and knowledge required to function effectively in post-graduate programs. While a bachelor-level psychology degree is of considerable practical value, and such graduates are eagerly pursued by employers in a wide range of allied disciplines, those individuals seeking to pursue a career in psychological science typically continue with their education beyond the bachelor-level degree. Placement of our Bachelor of Science (Honours) psychology professionals in high quality post-graduate programs is accordingly a critical component of our program. Our students are the future of psychological science, and the quality of their education and level of motivation is the primary determinate of the future development of the field. Beyond our primary focus on general education, and student personal/professional development,... [-]